Topic 5, Some thoughts

img_3654During this week, I was analyzing my own development in the digital community learning and I discovered that I’m still a visitor who is trying to become a residence [1]. The ONL course has given me more awareness of online learning, different type of online courses e.g. MOOCs education which offers already as well as the numerous research in the area. To understand better my own learning development I found a classification based on 4 stages:

Stage 1 – Unconscious incompetence

This first stage is not knowing what the learner doesn’t know; what some call the “unknown unknowns“. For example, the person is unaware that several online courses exist and there are accessible to everybody.

Stage 2 – Conscious incompetence

Socrates stated ”I know that I know nothing” [2] which is an important condition to be motivated and curious to learn more, in other words:  “To be conscious that you are ignorant of the facts is a great step to knowledge.”  Benjamin Disraeli (1874 -1880). The second stage is the first step forward to become aware of something the person doesn’t know. Here the person is open to learning and knowing the possibility to learn something every day if pay attention.

The stage 3, Conscious competence

Here, the learner begins learning and getting from stage 2 to stage 3. The learner has acquired a skill, but has not yet mastered it to the point where it comes naturally. This stage may take years and it can depend on many factors, not least the difficulty of the matter and the level of motivation to learn.  The process can be enjoyable or tough, easy or hard, personally rewarding or deeply challenging (or both) and also depending on prior experiences.

Stage 4 – Unconscious competence

The learner applies what he/she has learned and the acquired ability becomes unconscious. He/she reached Stage 4 becoming unaware and effective. The person becomes more confident and applies that knowledge in the “real world”.

If I will define myself based on this model, I’m in the stage 2 which is “Conscious incompetence”, trying to enhance my knowledge and has a strong motivation to learn and apply what I learned. The fact that I exposed me in the webinars, twitters, has been to me a big challenge that I didn’t know that I will manage that. Perhaps, these experiences will help me to get motivation to learn more.   During the two weeks I was thinking, about how to apply my few acquired knowledge and skills about the platforms used and the different models for an online learning course in the future. To be aware of my limitations and the need for more education is a great step to look forward a future with a lot of interesting learning and hopefully applying that in my professional and private life.

  1. David White: Visitors and residents (part 1)
  2. Ana de Armas y Villada: All about learning. The four stages of learning.
  3. Plato, Apology 21d; A. Andrea, J Overfield. The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Volume I: To 1500 (p. 116), Cengage Learning, 2015, ISBN 1305537467.

Designing an online education for staff at healthcare organization

Topic 4. Design for online and blended learning


This topic has given me new insights about the different approaches, strategies and resources concerning the designing of online and blended courses. Several of these approaches have common principles such as: definition of the students/learners, clear objective, structured content and evaluation of the course as well as the need of online socialization and careful election of the digital platforms. However, an approach that I found more appropriate, because I’m working on education programs for professional or clinicians in health care, is the 5 stage design model described by Salmon G. (2013) [1].

  1. Access and motivation, the moderator’s role is to ensure that learners are able to use the relevant technologies, are enrolled as group members, and feel welcomed on arrival.
  2. Online socialization, learners engages in non-threatening message sending, greeting others, telling something about themselves, and getting to know people. Salmon suggests that the moderator should help students become familiar with the excepted norms and behaviors, offering bridges between this and prior experience in online and offline communities.
  3. Information exchange, learners begin to share ideas and knowledge with one another. The moderator now acts as a facilitator, establishing tasks and sharing learning materials and processes.
  4. Knowledge construction, learners begin to engage in meaningful dialogue, exploring challenging ideas. The moderator facilitates this process by probing questions, complex ideas, and summarizing.
  5. Development, learners take responsibility for their own learning, analyzing not just ideas, but the process itself, taking the learning beyond the moderator’s prescribed limits. When this occurs, the moderator becomes an almost equal participant, supporting the independence of the learners and dealing with problems as they arise. The model seems to fit well with our experience of online groups up to this point.

Another approach suggested by Battles JB. (2006) [2] was the application of Instructional system design (ISD) using the ADDIE approach (analysis, development, design, implementation, and evaluation) for e-learning environments in health professions education. The author described how the ADDIE approach to ISD can be applied to patient safety. In my opinion the ADDIE approach is also appropriate to use in advanced health care education, but it is necessary to take into account the students’ age, experience of digital platforms and competence in their clinical area. If the students belong to the “digital generation” which is also called the “Z generation” ( the need of introduction to digital platforms is not necessary. Siragusa L., et al., (2007) [3] suggested a model containing 24 sets of recommendations in order to accommodate the varying pedagogical needs among learners as well as mode of course delivery. The 24 sets are grouped within nine main sections in order to optimize their pedagogical quality. See article:  (

An important factor for a successful online course is the knowledge of online tools, platforms and practical sources. On a website section “Tips and Tools” ( created by Contact North to serve faculty and instructors of post-secondary institutions, The Ontario Online Learning Portal, I found practical resources for course designers, numerous tools and information on the latest research and trends in online education.

  1. Salmon, G., (2013). The Five Stage Model. Retrieved 2016 November 8 from
  2. Battles JB. (2006). Improving patient safety by instructional systems design. BMJ Quality and Safety Health Care. Dec; 15 Suppl. 1:i25-9. PMID: 17142604 PMCID: DOI: 10.1136/qshc.2005.015917.
  3. Siragusa L., Dixon K. C. and Dixon R. (2007). Designing quality e-learning environments in higher education. Faculty of Education, Language Studies and Social Work Curtin University of Technology.

The impact of student-student and student-teacher interaction on community learning

Topic 3. Learning in communities- networked collaborative learning


The webinar with Martha Cleveland-Innes [1] on learning in communities was very informative and inspiring. The Communities of inquiry (COI) [2] framework and the survey used to measure these factors gave me a new knowledge about evaluation of community and collaborative learning. One area, I’m interested in knowing more about is, whether the student-student and student-teacher interaction impact on community learning. I was happy to find an article by Cho M. & Tobias S (2016) [3], who examined the impact of student-teacher interaction in ONL course. The authors used a quasi-experimental study design with 25-30 participants, undergraduate students who attended a fully online course in the US. There were three sections. In the first instance, there was no discussion. In the second, the teacher posted a weekly discussion question and students were obliged to post at least one answer and one comment per week. In the third section the teacher actively participated in the weekly discussions. In all cases the teachers was accessible via email. The authors used multiple measures of interaction effects: COI Inventory (to measure teaching, social and cognitive presence), Three items (to measure students’ course satisfaction), Time on task as represented by login time to the LMS (to measure time and task factors).

The results showed that perceptions of social presence were significantly higher in the more interactive instances, specifically open communication and group cohesion. Teaching presence increased in the third instance, but not significantly. Interestingly, there were no differences in regard to time on task, student satisfaction or student achievement.

The results of Community of Inquiry survey for ONL162 conducted by Martha Cleveland-Innes in the last webinar [1], showed higher ratings in teaching presence, particularly in following items: “the instructors provide clear instructions on how to participate in the course learning activities” and “the instructors encourage participants to explore new concepts in this course”. The lowest rating was in emotional presence, particularly “emotion is expressed when connecting with others students”. One reflection could be that the active role of the instructors/teachers, positive social environment and openness among the students, as well as mutual support are crusial for a positive outcome of learning communities. This result confirmed the results from the study above, where the student-student and student-teachers interactions were significant on the student’s perception of social presence particularly open communication and group cohesioni learning communities.

Clustr Map for the Global Education Coll by elemenous, on Flickr
Clustr Map for the Global Education Coll” (CC BY-SA 2.0) by elemenous

  1. Martha Cleveland-Innes, webinar, Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining, Communities of Inquiry.
  2. Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
  3. Cho, M., & Tobias, S. (2016). Should Instructors Require Discussion in Online Courses? Effects of Online Discussion on Community of Inquiry, Learner Time, Satisfaction, and Achievement. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distributed Learning, 17(2). doi:

Topic 2. Open Learning – Sharing and Openness

Why is Open Education Important? Roundta by giulia.forsythe, on Flickr
Why is Open Education Important? Roundta” (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) by giulia.forsythe

During the last month I have gained new insight into open learning. One of these reflections was the realization that the digital revolution is inevitable in the area of education. I came to this conclusion because of a similar evolution in other areas such as music, games, and magazines. Higher educational institutions and universities are seeing a number of opportunities and challenges as a consequence of digital and online media development. Despite these achievements, open online learning such as massive open online courses (MOOCs) [1] and open access publishing seems to be developing slowly [2]. One question is how to evaluate the way in which an organization or institution adapted to the digital challenges. Weller et al., (2013) investigated the ability of two institutions (the UK’s Open University and Canada’s Athabasca University) to adapt to new technologies by using the resilience metaphor from ecology. The authors used a qualitative approach evaluating 4 factors [3] using a ranking of 1 to 10 (1 = weak resilience, 10 = strong resilience), a score of 35 indicated that there wasn’t a particularly new challenge or that the institution was exceptionally well adapted already. A low score of less than 15 indicated that the institution faced a considerable threat from this challenge which it had not adapted to.

  • Latitude: the maximum amount a system can be changed before losing its ability to recover.
  • Resistance: the ease or difficulty of changing the system; how ‘resistant’ it is to being changed.
  • Precariousness: how close the current state of the system is to a limit or ‘threshold’.
  • Panarchy: the influences of external forces at scales above and below. For example, external oppressive politics, invasions, market shifts, or global climate change can trigger local surprises and regime shifts.

The resilience factor for MOOCs for the UK Open University was 29 (Latitude= 8, Resistance= 8; Precariousness=7 and Panarchy=6) while the Open access for Athabasca University was 28 (Latitude= 8, Resistance=5; Precariousness=7 and Panarchy=8). The result showed differences in resistance and panarchy factors between these institutions which have largely been discussed in the article. They concluded that the resilience metaphor could be a useful framework to examine an institution’s ability to adapt to digital challenges. In my opinion, this model could be useful to evaluate how flexible an institution is and how it follows digital development, but the raters need to have up to date knowledge of the digitalization process in the institution to participate in the study. Due to being new in this field and just having started in my post, I do not have sufficient knowledge in the field and I don’t feel competent to evaluate the resilience factor in my institution.  The value of this article for me is that I will pay more attention to these factors in my future work.

Another new insight was that I became aware of the dilemma of several teachers who face the challenge of sharing their open educational resources (OERs) [4], and how these OERs can be used without modifying the aim and content of the materials. A great way to ensure that the OERs will be used with caution is by using Creative Commons (CC) [5]. Another reflection was that it was better to share the teacher’s recourses with others between institutions and collaborate to enhance the quality of education.  I think using MOOCs, CC and OERs could be an important factor for the evolution of the “Worldwide ONL”, where students from all over the world can participate and share experiences. Using such education, students and teachers can share and enhance their knowledge of different cultural contexts and the different problems each individual has to face.

  1. What is a MOOC? Short explanation by Dave Cormier, one of the people behind the first ever by Neal Gillis – Research by: Bonnie Stewart Alexander McAuley George Siemens Dave Cormier,
  2. Weller, M., & Anderson, T. (2013). Digital resilience in higher education. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 16(1), 53.
  3. Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5. [online] URL:
  4. Devin Henson, Midlands Technical College – Columbia, Open Educational Resources (OER’s), SC 3/17/15,
  5. Creative Commons guide. Nice short overview to CC-licensing by Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand.

Visitors and residents

I’m happy to have the opportunity to learn and use digital tools, platforms and meet other students around the world! I’m considering me as visitor according to David White, and and I discovered that there are a numerous useful digital tools. I hope that with this course I will be more familiar with the different educational platforms and feel as a new resident.  



My name is Nora, I’m working as a project leader for a project aimed at developing an educational program in clinical psychology at the Centre for Psychotherapy Research and Education at the Department of Clinical Neuroscience (CNS), Karolinska Institutet.

Previously, I had been working as a clinical psychologist for many years in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic. I have worked as a research coordinator and been a PhD student for the last four years. In March of this year I defended my thesis and received my doctoral degree. My thesis was focused on the adaptation and evaluation of a manual based social skills training program for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate the genotype and behavioral effects of social skills group training for children and adolescents with high-functioning autism.

I’m interested in PBL and educational programs for psychotherapists and clinical psychologists as well as in research on treatment outcomes focusing on children and adolescents. I’m not familiar with online- and opened networked learning, but I hope that this opportunity to attend the course online will enhance my skills regarding digital tools.  I look forward to learning from and working with you.